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Courses

Wake Forest Law offers a variety of courses in many areas of legal theory and practice. Below you will find a complete course listing. You can also find lists of courses that satisfy the Practical Skills Requirement, Upper-level Writing Requirement, and Legal Analysis, Writing, and Research III Requirement.

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551 - Admiralty Law (3 hours)
An examination of the procedural and substantive aspects of United States admiralty practice and jurisdiction. Offered in alternate years.

422 - Advanced Administrative Law (2 hours)
This seminar will consider various issues related to the legitimacy of pubic administration, including how legitimacy is impacted by its constitutional status, political oversight, public participation, and other elements of legitimacy. The seminar will also consider how legitimacy might differ in countries other than the United States. Students will be graded on their class participation (10%), blogs covering the different assignments (15%), and a two-draft paper (65%). The paper will satisfy the ULWR.

617 - Advanced Family Law: A Case Study (2 hours)
An in-depth analysis of the legal regulation of family relationships, with special emphasis on the complex written agreements that attorneys create and rely upon in this field.

606 - Advanced Legal Research (2 hours)
This course will provide students with an in-depth examination of the legal and law-related research sources available through print, online databases, and the Internet that they will need in order to make the transition from law school to law practice. Students will develop competency in developing cost-effective and efficient research strategies.

611 - Advanced Trial Practice (3 hours)
This course covers several subject areas not covered in depth in the basic trial practice course: voir dire, witness preparation, expert witness examination, and case planning. Students will perform exercises in each of these areas. They will try an advanced civil case for their final exam. The use of PowerPoint is required for the trial. Prerequisites: Evidence and Trial Practice.

401 - Agency (2 hours)
A study of the principal and agent relationship and rights and obligations of third parties with regard to principal and agent.

649 - Analytical Methods for Lawyers (2 hours)
This course introduces methods of analysis drawn from disciplines such as economics, game theory, accounting, finance and statistics. The concepts and techniques covered here will enable lawyers to analyze legal problems, and communicate with clients, with a richer vocabulary and a broader range of tools. The course will be team-taught, with an emphasis on problems and regular in-class assignments. Offered on a periodic basis.

642 - Animal Law (2 hours)
A survey of legal, ethical, and policy issues regarding non-human animals. Topics include anti-cruelty laws; medical and scientific research; liability for injuries to, or caused by, animals; hunting laws; and standing for animals. Students will write a paper in this course. Offered on a periodic basis.

538 - Antitrust (2 hours)*
A study of federal antitrust laws to prevent monopolies and various anticompetitive practices with special consideration of mergers, price fixing, price discrimination, tying arrangements, exclusive dealing, territorial and customer restraints, boycotts, and monopolization.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

219 - Appellate Advocacy (2 hours)
Experience in the preparation, research, and writing of an appellate brief and in oral argument before an appellate court. Participation in the intramural Stanley Moot Court competition is an option in the Fall. This course satisfies the Legal Analysis, Writing, and Research III Requirement.

548 - Appellate Advocacy Clinic (3 hours)
An advanced appellate advocacy seminar involving representation of clients in federal and state appellate tribunals, including representation pursuant to Local Rule 46 of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. This course is open only to third-year students. Prerequisite: Appellate Advocacy

417 - Art and Cultural Property Law (3 hours)*
The class will survey current issues in the law of art and cultural property including: defining art and cultural property; an artist’s rights in a work of art; the international trade of art and measures to limit that trade; the fate of art works in wartime; repatriation of art and antiquities; the role, structure and duties of museums; and other topics. In addition to regularly scheduled classes, students will also visit Reynolda House and other museums and galleries. Students will be evaluated based on quizzes, shorter papers written in response to readings, transactional drafting exercise(s), and a final exam, and have the option of completing a research paper to satisfy the Upper Level Writing Requirement. Pre-requisite for LLM students: civil procedure (for choice of law issues).
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

529 - Aviation Law (2 hours)
A study of airport law, governmental liability, litigation management, air carrier liability, and economic regulation of airlines both domestic and international. Offered in alternate years.

543 - Banking Law (2 hours)
A study of traditional banking regulation questions.

515 - Bankruptcy (3 hours)
This course deals with the fundamentals of bankruptcy law, with a balance of consumer and business cases. Prerequisite: Debtor-Creditor Law

568 - Bankruptcy: Advanced Topics (2 hours)
This course is a seminar focusing on distressed investing. The evolution of bankruptcy from back room deals to major capital markets transactions has seen hedge funds, private equity funds, lending institutions and proprietary trading desks play an ever expanding role in corporate restructurings. The assets, securities and claims of companies in financial distress are significant profit opportunities for investors that specialize in distressed investing. Among the topics to be covered are the various legal tactics and strategies used by hedge funds, private equity funds and other investors to take control of, or invest in, distressed companies. The course will use case law and actual transactional documents to demonstrate the intersection of bankruptcy, securities, tax and general corporate law, all of which intersect in distressed debt transactions. This course will also examine distressed securities of troubled companies and the specialized trading markets that develop both before and during a company's restructuring. Practitioners and investors will appear throughout the semester to discuss their personal experiences.

594 - Bioethics (2 hours)
Students will act as a court or administrative agency and write opinions addressing emerging legal issues created by society's advancement in medicine and technology, including genetics, medical experimentation and research, reproductive rights and end of life decisions.

657 - Biotechnology Law and Policy (2 hours)
Biotechnology is a major growth industry and both large and boutique law firms are establishing biotech or “life sciences” practice groups. This course surveys a range of legal topics in this field, such as: FDA regulation of drugs and devices, regulation of medical research, products liability, insurance coverage of pharmaceuticals, intellectual property, and genetics. Offered on a periodic basis.

662 - Broker-Dealer Regulation (2 hours)
The purpose of this course is to survey the framework and processes by which broker dealers, who are central participants in the American securities industry, are regulated. As recent events in the financial world so dramatically illustrate, effective and consistent regulation affects the global economy, helping to determine whether people enjoy any financial stability in their everyday lives.

420 - Business Drafting LAWR (2 hours)
This course focuses on legal drafting in the business setting. Students will be required to draft and evaluate typical documents including corporate documents, loan and purchase contracts, partnership agreements, and employment agreements. This course will satisfy the LAWR III requirement. Does not satisfy the upper-level writing requirement.

541 - Business Drafting ULWR (2 hours)
This course focuses on legal drafting in the business setting. Students will be required to draft and evaluate typical documents including corporate documents, loan and purchase contracts, partnership agreements, and employment agreements.

667 - Business Litigation (2 hours)
The course focuses on the most common kinds of litigated business disputes with instruction on the short and long paths to their successful conclusions. Students will review procedural principles like "what court" and "where" and best pleading practices. The course will cover business litigation involving creditors' rights, business "splits," contract disputes, and other common business disputes resulting in litigation.

203 - Business Organizations (4 hours)
A study of the nature, powers, and obligations of private corporations, including their formation, management, and dissolution; the rights and duties of promoters, directors, officers, and stockholders; and the rights of creditors and others against the corporation; together with a study of the creation, nature, and characteristics of business partnerships.

628 - Business Planning (2 hours)
Examination of selected legal problems relating to some of the following topics: choice of business entity, forming a partnership, forming a corporation, corporate restructuring transactions (shifting ownership interests among shareholders), purchase and sale of a business. Prerequisite: Business Organizations.

676 - Carolina Externship (4 hours)
This course is currently available only in the summer. The director of the externship designates one or more cities in North and South Carolina, usually including Charlotte, NC, and offers the students externships in a designated practice area. The practice areas vary from summer to summer. Students meet weekly with the director to integrate and apply the doctrinal insights received elsewhere in the law school curriculum and in the subject matter of the field placements. The course fulfills the practical skills requirement.

563 - Child Advocacy Clinic (3 hours)
The Child Advocacy Clinic focuses on the representation of children in three settings: deciding the custody of children in high conflict cases, deciding the custody of children in civil domestic violence actions, and representing children of indigent parents in issues involving the public school system. Students study the various models for representing children - as lawyer advocate, as lawyer guardian ad litem, and as non-lawyer guardian ad litem – and analyze the ethical issues raised in the various settings. Students also study the procedural and substantive law involved in deciding the custody issue in both the family law and the domestic violence settings and in representing children in the educational setting. Students spend an average of 4 to 5 hours a week in their field work.

626 - Church, Law, and Ethics (2 hours)
A study of the most important rules of contracts, torts, and statutory law that bind the Church as a business and social enterprise. This course is cross-listed with the Divinity School, where it carries the course number THS 622.

602 - Civil Law Tradition (2 hours)
This course traces the development of European civil law systems from their common source in Roman law and legal science to modern civil codes (in particular the Austrian, French, German, Swiss, and Dutch). The course will also examine the ongoing process of harmonization and unification of private law in the European Union.

104 - Civil Procedure I (3 hours)
A survey of proceedings in a civil action, including jurisdiction of state and federal courts, law for the case, pleading and parties, pre-trial and discovery, trial and appeal.

105 - Civil Procedure II (3 hours)
A survey of proceedings in a civil action, including jurisdiction of state and federal courts, law for the case, pleading and parties, pre-trial and discovery, trial and appeal.

631 - Civil Rights Litigation (2 hours)*
A survey of litigation under Section 1983 and other post-Reconstruction statutes, dealing with claims about voting rights, education, housing, and employment. The materials consider legal classifications based on race, ethnicity, language minorities, gender, sexual orientation, and disability.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

643 - Civil Rights Remedies (2 hours)*
This course will examine how the judiciary should respond to race discrimination and the efficacy and competency of federal courts in redressing race discrimination. The class will take as a given that a legal violation has been proven; the question becomes how the courts should respond. Students will examine such issues as voting districts based on race; compelled integration of public housing; compensatory education programs in formerly segregated school systems; affirmative action programs; and the question of whether any judicially-imposed remedy is appropriate for race discrimination.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

633 - Classical Rhetoric for Lawyers: The Art of Persuasion (2 hours)
Classical rhetoric is the art of proper persuasion and therefore central not only to the practice of law but to social life itself. Litigation, negotiation, public speaking as well as interactions with clients, colleagues, teachers, students, government, and all others encountered in daily life require proper and effective rhetoric. Such rhetoric is much more substantive than mere style. Its basic principles were refined by the ancient Greeks and Romans who understood its critical role in good citizenship, good government and in the good life. This course will study these basic principles of persuasion and their application in legal arguments, court decisions, famous speeches and other materials and will practice putting these principles into application with the hope of not only improving legal skills but life skills as well. Offered on a periodic basis.

408 - Commercial Leasing (2 hours)
This course focuses on the negotiation and drafting of commercial real estate leases from the initial letter of intent stage to the final lease closing. Items studied and drafting exercises include: (1) letters of intent, (2) brokerage agreements, (3) commercial leases and lease provisions at various levels of the negotiation process, (4) subordination, nondisturbance and attornment agreements, (5) estoppel certificates, and (6) lease memoranda. The course covers various forms of commercial leases, including ground leases, retail leases, subleases, and license and occupancy agreements. This course also focuses upon professionalism and ethics in the negotiation and drafting process. In addition to learning applicable law, students receive regular evaluation of substantial drafting and negotiation assignments typical of those encountered in actual practice. The negotiation and drafting skills learned in this course apply to other areas of commercial practice. Prerequisite: Property 111.

601 - Community Law & Business Clinic (4 hours)
The work of this clinic is primarily transactional. Students will assist clients at various stages in the business development process, with an emphasis on business, housing, and institutional support in economically disadvantaged segments of the community.

590 - Comparative Constitutional Law (3 hours)
This course will explore questions central to public law issues in the United States and across the world. It will consider the purposes for which constitutions are established, and the processes of constitution-making and constitutional change.

583 - Comparative Law (2 hours)
This course introduces comparative methods of legal analysis, with a focus on the "civil law tradition" in Latin America. Study includes the development of the civil law tradition in Europe, the spread of that tradition to Latin America, and particular topics of Latin American law. Weekly graded papers; no final exam.

661 - Comparative Tort Law (2 hours)
The course studies the tort concept of negligence and how it operates in the United States and in England. The course covers the duty of care; omissions and liability for third parties’ acts; recovery in relation to negligently inflicted economic losses, psychiatric illness and wrongful birth (and related topics); and suing public bodies in negligence.

576 - Complex Civil Litigation (3 hours)
This course is about complex civil litigation and covers a variety of civil procedure topics not taught in the first year course (and a few that are) that bear on complex litigation. Topics that are covered include consideration of what makes a civil case complex, advanced joinder devices (intervention, necessary parties, interpleader, consolidation), multidistrict litigation, overlapping state and federal actions, including injunctions against prosecuting duplicative actions, discovery and the conflict between zealous representation and the obligation of cooperation in discovery, confidentiality orders, appellate jurisdiction, attorney’s fees, and mechanisms to structure the trial, such as bifurcation of issues. A substantial portion of the course covers class actions. Offered on a periodic basis.

403 - Conflict of Laws (3 hours)
A study of the choice of law rules applicable where at least one of the operative facts in a case is connected with some state or country other than the one in which suit is brought.

120 - Constitutional Law I (3 hours)
A survey of the protection of individual liberties under the Constitution with emphasis on application of the Bill of Rights to the states; substantive due process, including the right to privacy; First Amendment guarantees of free speech and religion; the state action requirement; and the Fourteenth Amendment guarantee of equal protection. The course also focuses on types of constitutional argument and analysis.

209 - Constitutional Law II (2 hours)
An examination of the role of the Congress and the Supreme Court in the American legal system with emphasis on the powers of Congress, especially over commerce; judicial review, justiciability; separation of powers; executive authority; limitations on state power under preemption, the dormant commerce clause, and the interstate privileges or immunities clause; and procedural due process as a limit on government power. Students also study types of constitutional arguments and analysis.

636 - Construction Law (2 hours)
This two-credit course builds on traditional doctrinal courses such as contracts and torts, and tracks the use of these doctrines by attorneys who advise and advocate for parties involved in construction projects. It incorporates practical problems that require students to learn and exercise “lawyering” skills such as (a) contract drafting, (b) contract review, (c) client counseling about management of risk, (d) claim identification, and (e) claim preparation. The substantive topics to be covered include competitive bidding, project design, contract documents, project scheduling, payment issues, construction changes, damages, workplace safety issues, insurance, mechanic’s liens, suretyship, and alternative dispute resolution.

511 - Consumer Protection (2 hours)
A study of the sale of consumer goods on credit and the lending of money. Issues covered include false advertising, retail sales practices and consumer fraud, the Federal Trade Commission Act and State "Mini-FTC" Acts, state and federal warranty laws, deceptive pricing, debt collection practices, and truth in lending laws. Offered on a periodic basis.

425 - Contracts and Commercial Transactions LAWR (2 hours)
This “best practices” course introduces students to commercial law and to the structuring, negotiation, drafting, and review of common commercial agreements. These agreements include: (1) non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements, (2) employment agreements, (3) services agreements, (4) agreements for the sale of goods, and (5) lending and security agreements. In addition to exploring applicable law and theory, students analyze, draft, redline, and actively discuss actual commercial contracts. In so doing, students explore both the specific effects of various contractual provisions and the potential broader commercial implications of such provisions. If not taken to satisfy LAWR III, this course will also satisfy the Practical Skills requirement. This course is a writing course with no exam. Contracts I and II are prerequisites.

101 - Contracts I (3 hours)
A study of the formation, essentials, interpretation, and operation of contracts as well as the discharge of contractual duties and remedies for breach.

102 - Contracts II (3 hours)
A study of the formation, essentials, interpretation, and operation of contracts as well as the discharge of contractual duties and remedies for breach.

586 - Copyrights (2 hours)*
This course focuses on the basics of copyright law, including: the subject matter of copyright; how copyright is secured and maintained; the scope of protection; and the duration, renewal and transfer of rights. It also explores enforcement of copyright, the impact of new technologies, and issues relating to access and use of copyrightable subject matter.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

574 - Copyrights: Selected Topics (2 hours)*
This course covers a variety of subjects not covered in depth in Copyrights 586. Copyrights 586 is not a prerequisite. Offered on a periodic basis.
* This course may be offered for 1 hour during some years.

619 - Corporate Finance (2 hours)
A study of the allowable changes in a corporation's financial structure with concentration on the recapitalization of solvent corporations, reorganization of insolvent corporations, and concepts of valuation. This course will emphasize the role that lawyers play in structuring and implementing financial transactions for corporations. Prerequisite: Business Organizations.

423 - Corporate Governance Law Policy and Theory (2 hours)
This course studies the role of the corporation in society, state and federal corporate law, boards of directors and senior executives, executive pay, corporate takeovers, shareholder voice, corporate compliance, corporate culture, corporate lawyers and other "gatekeepers," corporations and politics, and comparative corporate governance. The course prepares students whose careers will require interaction with business interests and corporate clients.

561 - Corporations: Advanced Topics (2 hours)
An in-depth analysis of federal and state regulation of corporate takeovers to include acquisition techniques, legal protection afforded shareholders and others, federal tender offer and disclosure rules, state corporate fiduciary law and anti-takeover statutes. Prerequisite: Business Organizations.

433 - Criminal Justice and Popular Culture (1 hour)
The course uses TV series and movies to highlight the criminal justice issues that capture the imagination of scriptwriters. Class discussion illuminates the ways in which the writers get the issues right – and wrong. The course is available only pass/fail.

103 - Criminal Law (3 hours)
General principles of criminal law, specific crimes, and defenses.

400 - Criminal Procedure Survey (4 hours)
A study of state and federal criminal procedure from investigation through trial and post-trial remedies, including constitutional rights of those accused of crime, suppression of evidence, trial preparation, and guilty pleas. Students who have taken Criminal Procedure: Investigation or Criminal Procedure: Adjudication in the past or those who are currently enrolled in either of those two courses may not register for Criminal Procedure Survey.

406 - Criminal Procedure: Adjudication (2 hours)*
A study of the selection, prosecution, and resolution of criminal charges. Topics will be chosen from the following: selection and grouping of charges, availability of defense counsel, pretrial release, discovery, speedy trial preparation, guilty pleas, jury trials, right to confrontation, jury deliberations and verdicts, sentencing, appeal, and collateral challenges to convictions. Students who have taken Criminal Procedure Survey in the past or those who are currently enrolled in Criminal Procedure Survey may not register for Criminal Procedure: Adjudication. Criminal Procedure: Investigation is not a pre-requisite for this course.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

405 - Criminal Procedure: Investigation (3 hours)
A study of legal and institutional limits on law enforcement conduct in the investigation of crime, with particular focus on the constitutional limits established by the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments. Topics include searches and seizures, police interrogations, and the identification of suspects. Students who have taken Criminal Procedure Survey in the past or those who are currently enrolled in Criminal Procedure Survey may not register for Criminal Procedure: Investigation.

500 - Criminal Procedure: Selected Topics (2 hours)*
A detailed study of one or more selected aspects of criminal procedure. The topics covered in recent years have included sentencing law, police accountability, and the jurisprudence of the death penalty. 3 hour section will satisfy the Upper Level Writing Requirement.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

434 - Critical Race Theory (2 hours)
This seminar explores the centrality of race as a foundational feature of American law. The study is cross-racial, comparative, and proactive, analyzing the converging and diverging experiences of indigenous peoples: Latinas/Latinos, African Americans, and Asian Pacific Americans, as well as different strategies for social justice.

410 - Cross Disciplinary Professional Development (1 hour)
This is a professional development course that will meet over spring break. More than considering the application of ethical codes to particular situations, the course provides students with an opportunity to explore the question of what it means to be a member of the professional class and how this meaning is formed through training and practice. This course is co-taught with faculty from the schools of divinity and medicine and is cross listed for credit in each school. The course meets over spring break in Nicaragua, with seminars in Managua and field work, with service opportunities, in Boaca, Ciudad Sandino and other areas. Readings are drawn from all three disciplines. The course is a one-credit, graded offering that will involve a short seminar component before travel and several seminars while in Managua. Students will be responsible for travel costs, which can be estimated in the $1,000 to $1,200 range, depending on preferences and interest in staying beyond the class.

303 - Debtor-Creditor Law (3 hours)
A study of the collection of money judgments, with an emphasis on remedies available under state law. Topics include collection procedures and defenses, relief measures for debtors, and a brief treatment of federal bankruptcy law.

306 - Decedents' Estates and Trusts (4 hours)
A study of the descent of property by operation of wills and intestacy and the nature, creation, and elements of a trust.

671 - Defamation and Privacy in the Internet Era (1 hour)
Course description pending.

680 - Democracy Under Siege (2 hours)
This seminar addresses factors that support or undermine democracy and analyzes the indicia of whether a formally democratic system is democratic in fact. Topics include economic inequality, campaign financing, voting rights, and media and free speech. The course is not offered every academic year.

664 - Depositions (2 hours)
This "mini-course" on depositions is a combination of lecture and lab instruction open to students who have already completed Evidence and Trial Practice. It is taught in an intensive format, which includes four full days of instruction on how to take and defend depositions. Students will be divided into small groups to perform discrete exercises based on the lectures using a simulated case, much like Trial Practice classes.

565 - Dispute Resolution (3 hours)
A study of traditional and alternative methods of resolving disputes; use of techniques such as arbitration and mediation will be studied. Negotiation theory and tactics will also be explored. Students who have taken Mediation in the past or who are currently enrolled in or who plan to take Mediation may not register for Dispute Resolution.

537 - Donative Transfers (2 hours)
A study of rules of construction which courts have adopted in resolving ambiguous dispositive instruments, including wills, trusts, and deeds. Decedent’s Estates & Trusts is recommended.

652 - Economic Torts (2 hours)*
This course covers tort protection of economic interests. Tort law’s primary focus is on protecting against personal injury and property damage. When the only harm caused is economic loss, such as lost profits, identity theft, a loss of an inheritance, the benefit of the bargain in a contract, an opportunity to start a new business, or a product that does not perform as it should have, tort law has been very restrictive about providing relief, leaving most of such harm to contract law or uncompensated. This course will cover the areas in which tort law does provide protection for “pure” economic loss, including misrepresentation and especially fraud. This course might have been titled business torts because corporations cannot suffer personal injury and most often when they sue other companies in tort, it involves economic loss. If time permits, legal malpractice and consumer protection, both of which entail economic loss, will also receive coverage. Offered on a periodic basis.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

552 - Education Law (2 hours)
This course will examine the legal authority and current legal problems of public and private elementary/secondary schools and higher educational institutions.

604 - Elder Law Clinic (4 hours)
In this clinic, operating since 1991, students work under the supervision of an experienced attorney. They handle legal problems for elderly clients, conduct interviews, draft pleadings and wills, and appear in court and in administrative proceedings. Students make community presentations on laws affecting older adults. A weekly classroom session includes topics such as estate planning for the small estate, Medicare/Medicaid, interviewing skills, and areas of law affecting older adults. A geriatrician, on the medical school faculty, teaches about the common medical issues of older clients, after which students are able to participate in a multidisciplinary clinic at the Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center.

650 - Election Law and Democracy (2 hours)*
This course will focus on selected topics related to the legal structure of the political process in the United States. Topics covered will typically include the right to participate in the political process, reapportionment, redistricting, racial and political gerrymandering, the role of political parties, money and politics, legal issues in election administration, and remedies for defective elections. Offered on a periodic basis. 3 hour section will satisfy the Upper Level Writing Requirement.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

546 - Employee Benefits and Pension Law (2 hours)
A seminar exploring the labor law implications of administering and advising clients concerning employee benefit plans under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA).

513 - Employment Discrimination (3 hours)*
This course surveys the federal statutes prohibiting discrimination on account of race, color, sex, religion, national origin, age and disability. It includes theories of liability, defenses, administrative procedures, and remedies. Students may not take this course and Employment Discrimination: Selected Topics 562. Offered in alternate years.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

562 - Employment Discrimination: Selected Topics (1 hour)
This course examines significant unresolved issues arising from the federal anti-discrimination statutes. Students will write two essays in response to the assigned readings. Students may not take this course and Employment Discrimination 513. Offered on a periodic basis. 2 hour section will satisfy the Upper Level Writing Requirement.

526 - Employment Law (3 hours)
This course is the foundational survey of the statutory and common laws governing the non-union workplace. It includes wrongful discharge, contracts, wages and hours, occupational safety and health, workers' compensation, and privacy rights. It also includes an overview of the federal statutes prohibiting discrimination on account of race, color, sex, religion, national origin, age, and disability.

418 - Employment Law: Selected Topics (1 hour)
Students will conduct research, and write a paper, on an advanced Employment Law topic of their choice. Students will meet with the professor periodically throughout the semester regarding topic selection, research, and drafting.

414 - Energy Law (2 hours)*
This course looks at the law and policy related to US energy sources and uses -- integrating legal, historical, technical, economic and environmental analysis. The readings come primarily from various online materials, including a student-created wikibook. Grading: (1) class participation [10%]; (2) open-book midterm quizzes [30%]; (3) a 7-10 page paper and in-class presentation on an energy law topic of student's choice [60%].
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

599 - Entertainment Law (2 hours)
A study of the law relevant to the representation of entertainers and the promoters and producers of entertainment.

512 - Environmental Law (3 hours)
A selective survey of Federal approaches to public health and environmental regulation, including study of at least one of the Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act.

304 - Equitable and Legal Remedies (3 hours)
This course focuses on monetary damages (including the "rightful position" principle, consequential damages, and monetary damages for dignitary and constitutional harms) and injunctions - preventive, reparative, and structural. Other topics include contempt and attorneys' fees.

436 - European Union Competition Law (2 hours)
This course covers the basics of EU antitrust law in private international business transactions. EU competition authorities aggressively intervene in mergers and acquisitions in the EU even when no European company is involved, and this course alerts persons doing business in the EU to the circumstances that trigger EU intervention and the ways to keep from running afoul of the competition regulation. There are no prerequisites.

572 - European Union Law (2 hours)
A survey of the significant laws and policies of the European Community, including the legal and institutional framework, the internal market, competition and environmental laws and an overview of external relations and commercial policy.

207 - Evidence (4 hours)
A study of the rules and standards by which the admission of proof at a trial is regulated. Special reference to the Federal Rules of Evidence.

508 - Family Law (3 hours)
An exploration of the nature, requirements, and economic consequences of marriage, annulment, divorce and child custody as these topics relate to the traditional and non-traditional definition of "family."

579 - Federal Criminal Law (3 hours)*
This course is an upper-level elective that supplements the first-year substantive criminal law course. Topics covered include: federal criminal jurisdiction, limitations on federal criminal authority, conspiracy, RICO, drug trafficking, mail fraud, and problems of federal-state jurisdictional overlap. The course is not a seminar. Offered on a periodic basis.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

670 - Federal Criminal Practice (2 hours)
This course uses a case study of a federal crime and analyzes it from investigation through sentencing. Students study complaints, pretrial motions, suppression hearings, plea negotiations, and sentencing hearings.

514 - Federal Jurisdiction (3 hours)
A study of the jurisdiction of the United States trial and appellate courts and the role of these tribunals in the federal system.

660 - Financial Services Regulation (3 hours)
Financial Services Regulation is a seminar course that explores how “financial services” families are regulated under federal and state law in the United States in the wake of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999, which permitted affiliations, and now in the wake of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010. The course will deal with the regulation of bank and thrift holding companies, banking institutions (generally), insurance companies and producers, broker-dealers, investment advisers and investment companies, and will focus on practical issues associated with “representing the highly regulated client” - where to find the law, how to apply the law and turn it into client advice and the consequences to attorneys as “institution-affiliated parties.” Team work, based on various charters and types of entities, will be a feature of the class, with each team having a “client.” Business Organizations #203 is a prerequisite.

437 - Food Law and Policy (2 hours)
This course explores food safety regulations and food access/food justice issues. Using an interdisciplinary approach, the course analyzes issues of sustainability, organic and fair trade labeling law, seed and gene patenting, and international food aid. The course is cross-listed in the Divinity School and in the Center for Bioethics, Health and Society.

438 - Food Law and Policy: Practicum (1 hour)
See course description for 437 for the doctrinal content. 438 offers an optional 3d hour, with a mix of online course modules, writing, and offsite field experience.

584 - Freedom of Religion Under the Constitution (3 hours)
An examination of the law of religious freedom as fashioned by the U.S. Supreme Court, under the First and Fourteenth Amendments.

588 - Freedom of Speech, Press and Petition: Selected Topics (2 hours)*
This seminar course will address state and federal constitutional decisions in the First Amendment areas of speech, press and petition. 3 hour section will satisfy the Upper Level Writing Requirement.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

439 - Funeral and Cemetery Law (3 hours)
The course focuses on the $20 billion funeral and cemetery industry. Students with interests in estate planning and elder law may be especially drawn to the course, which covers the rights of disposal of bodies, the treatment of remains, regulation of funeral directors and embalmers, consumer protection issues, grave relocation, and other topics. Students will have the option of a long paper that satisfies the upper level writing requirement.

647 - Gender and the Law (2 hours)
This course will examine how the law affects women’s lives in a number of different contexts. The class will consider a number of different areas, including but not limited to employment, education, family responsibilities, violence against women, and other issues affecting women’s bodies, including pornography and prostitution. The class will also review a number of feminist legal theories and issues relating to the intersection of gender with race and class. Offered on a periodic basis.

623 - Great Jurists Seminar (3 hours)
Students in this seminar will survey the jurisprudence of several famous judges and Justices, cutting across many subject matter lines and historical eras.

663 - Health and Medical Research for Lawyers (1 hour)
This course will introduce you to specific sources and strategies for researching a variety of health and medical topics, including Medicare and Medicaid regulations, medical malpractice health insurance procedures, and other current health related legislation.

525 - Health Care Law and Policy (2 hours)
This course introduces students to the structure, financing and regulation of the health care system and proposals for its reform. Legal topics include Medicare, medical staff disputes, health care antitrust, HMOs and insurance regulation.

677 - Health Related Research: Law, Regulation, and Policy (2 hours)
The course explores the regulatory framework and the policy issues that animate health-related research. Topics include public health and quality improvement research, genetic research, health-related behavioral and social science research, first-in-human trials, and international considerations.

424 - Higher Education Law (2 hours)
The course examines the legal and policy issues that shape higher education in the United States and explores the history and structure of American colleges and universities; college admissions and financial aid; academic freedom and tenure; student rights; research ethics; governing boards; local ordinances that impact colleges and universities; privatization; issues of race, class, disability, gender and sexual orientation; and the role of university general counsels.

428 - Human Relations Practices and Business Torts (2 hours)
The course focuses on advising the small business on good personnel and management practices in today’s business world. The course includes analysis of the liability the small business faces from lawsuits by third parties and from tort suits between employees and employers. The course is offered in a distant format.

624 - Humanistic Dimensions of Contractual Relations (2 hours)*
Students will engage with the range of philosophical, sociological, and other theoretical accounts to explain the legal status of some agreements as contracts.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

564 - Immigration Law (3 hours)
A survey of immigration law and policy, including the criteria for admission and exclusion, the substantive and procedural rights of aliens, and the current immigration issues faced by employers, businesses, and all of society.

558 - Immigration Law: Selected Topics (2 hours)*
This seminar will cover topics of current interest in immigration law. Past topics have included the intersection between immigration law and criminal law. Offered on a periodic basis. 3 hour section will satisfy the Upper Level Writing Requirement.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

850 - Independent Research and Thesis (2 hours)
LL.M. students must complete a two-hour writing requirement. The student may select either the thesis option or the seminar paper writing option. Restricted to LLM and SJD students.

505 - Independent Study (1 hour)
Research and writing in selected legal fields under faculty supervision. (No student may earn more than a total of three Independent Study credits in all, and no more than two credits on a single project or from a single professor.)

605 - Independent Study: Intensive (2 hours)
Research and writing in selected legal fields under faculty supervision. (No student may earn more than a total of three Independent Study credits in all, and no more than two credits on a single project or from a single professor.)

622 - Innocence and Justice Clinic (4 hours)*
In this interdisciplinary course, students will examine the legal, scientific, cultural and psychological causes of wrongful convictions. They will apply this knowledge to actual cases by reviewing and investigating claims of actual innocence by inmates and, where appropriate, pursuing legal avenues for exoneration and release from prison. Students will meet for two hours per week to examine and complete field work assignments.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

509 - Insurance Law (2 hours)
A study of the nature, requisites, and legal effect of the insurance contract.

534 - Intellectual Property (3 hours)
A survey course designed to provide the prospective general practitioner with knowledge of the basic principles of intellectual property and unfair competition law.

415 - Intellectual Property Licensing (2 hours)
This course reinforces and expands on the student's understanding of many of the fundamental principles of intellectual property law and focuses specifically on analysis and application of such principles within the context of intellectual-property-related transactions, such as licensing, confidentiality, and joint venture and other types of collaborative agreements. In addition, the course builds on the student's understanding of contract law principles by introducing and analyzing in detail contractual provisions directd to indemnification, representation and warranty, limitation of liability, confidentiality, and others for the purpose of demonstrating the important impact of such provisions on the overall transaction. The course is taught from a practioner's perspective and includes instruction designed to enhance the student's contract review, analysis, and negotiation skills. A pre-requisite or co-requisite of EITHER Intellectual Property (Survey), Patent Law, Copyrights, OR Trademarks is required.

673 - Intellectual Property Research (1 hour)
The course offers an in-depth look at the materials and sources used by lawyers who work in intellectual property. Students use the materials and learn the most efficient research techniques related to intellectual property.

577 - International Business Transactions (2 hours)*
A study of a wide range of international transactions, including marketing of goods and services; license or transfer of technology; joint ventures; finance and governmental regulation. Various multi-lateral initiatives, such as the Vienna Convention on contracts for the sale of goods, will be discussed.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

504 - International Civil Litigation and Arbitration Seminar (3 hours)
This seminar surveys international civil litigation, primarily from a U.S. perspective, choice of law in transnational cases, and international commercial arbitration practice and procedure.

627 - International Criminal Law (2 hours)*
This class exposes students to the concepts and enforcement of international criminal law (human rights law; humanitarian law, and the influence of the common law and civil law traditions on international criminal law). Students will explore war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide, and other international/transnational crimes, such as acts of terrorism. The class also explores the development of national, international and hybrid mechanisms for international criminal law enforcement, including international criminal tribunals and national prosecution.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

656 - International Environmental Law (2 hours)*
This seminar will examine and assess the legal regimes nations have developed to address international and global environmental problems, including climate change, ozone depletion, marine pollution, and the extinction of species.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

592 - International Human Rights (2 hours)*
The course will examine the international law of human rights from a moral as well as from a legal perspective.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

501 - International Law (3 hours)
An examination of the nature of international law, sources and evidence of international law and agreements, and international dispute resolution, including the use of force.

654 - International Trade Law (2 hours)*
This course will examine the legal framework that governs international economic relations, including in particular international trade in goods. It will discuss the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, and NAFTA, looking not only at how the international rules work, but also at how they conflict with or complement efforts to protect other goals, such as protecting labor rights and the environment. There is no prerequisite.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

575 - Internet Law (3 hours)
This course examines the legal issues associated with the Internet. Among other topics, the course covers the regulation of Internet access and domain names; contract formation, execution and enforceability; personal jurisdiction and choice of law; trademark and copyright infringement; and privacy concerns.

440 - Internship (1 hour)*
During the summer or during the school year, a student may receive 1 or 2 pass/fail credits for an internship in a law-related placement of the student’s choosing, subject to the approval of a faculty supervisor whom the student has enlisted. The student submits a statement of goals to the faculty supervisor and meets with the supervisor on the goals before the internship begins. During the internship, the student submits reflection papers and at the end of the internship, the student submits a concluding reflection paper or paper related to the subject matter of the placement and meets with the faculty member for a de-briefing. For a 1-hour summer internship the student submits a minimum of 4 2-page reflection papers, performs a minimum of 80 hours of field work, and submits a concluding paper of a minimum of 6-8 pages. For a 2-hour summer internship, the student submits a minimum of 8 2-page reflection papers, 160 hours of field work, and a concluding paper of a minimum of 10-15 pages. For a 1-hour internship during the school year, the student submits a minimum of 4 2-page reflection papers, performs a minimum of 60 hours of field work, and submits a concluding paper of a minimum of 6-8 pages. For a 2-hour internship during the school year, the student submits a minimum of 8 2-page reflection papers, 120 hours of field work, and a concluding paper of a minimum of 10-15 pages.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

851 - Introduction to American Law (2 hours)
Course provides an overview of various areas of American law, of the U.S. legal profession, and of the U.S. judicial process. The program is structured as a series of lectures and discussions by members of the law school faculty on the highlights of selected substantive areas in American Law. (Restricted to LL.M. students)

522 - Journal of Business and Intellectual Property Law (1 hour)*
The Law School publishes the Journal of Business and Intellectual Property Law. This publication features articles, notes, and comments from intellectual property practitioners, students, and faculty. The JBIPL encourages students to submit articles focusing on topics such as trademarks, copyrights, patent, trade secrets, unfair competition, cyberlaw, Internet business law, or any other subject of intellectual property. These items can be papers already completed for coursework or articles specifically written for the journal.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

540 - Judicial Externship (3 hours)
A clinical study of law from the viewpoint of the bench offered only during the summer. The student works as a judicial extern for a state or federal judge. Students will observe trials, conferences and hearings and research law and procedure under the judge's direction. A student must have completed their first year of law school in order to participate. Due to scheduling concerns permission must be obtained from the professor before registering for this course.

340 - Judicial Externship (1 hour)*
A student may receive 1 or 2 pass/fail credits for a fall or spring semester judicial externship. The student works with a faculty supervisor of the student’s choice on the selection of a judge. The student submits a statement of goals to the faculty supervisor and meets with the supervisor on the goals before the externship begins. For a 1-hour externship the student submits a minimum of 4 2-page reflection papers to the faculty supervisor during the externship and works for the judge for a minimum of 60 hours. At the end of the externship, the student submits to the supervisor a sample of the student’s work for the judge. For a 2-hour externship, the same requirements for a statement of goals and post-externship work sample apply, with a minimum of 8 2-page reflection papers and 120 hours of work for the judge.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

502 - Jurisprudence (3 hours)
Seminar discussion of some of the problems concerning the nature and sources of law, schools of jurisprudence, and the nature of judicial process with application to cases and other materials.

531 - Juvenile Law (2 hours)
This seminar considers the special procedural and substantive law applicable to children, with particular emphasis given to specialized juvenile courts.

503 - Labor Law (3 hours)*
A survey of the rights and duties of employers, unions, and employees under the National Labor Relations Act.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

536 - Land Use Regulation and Planning (2 hours)*
A study of the public regulation of land use and its alternatives. Primary focus is on the scope of the police power in the zoning process.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

430 - Law and Aging (2 hours)
The course covers the legal issues affecting the elderly, such as powers of attorney and advance medical directives; ethical issues; guardianship laws and federal programs; medical perspectives on mental capacity; housing issues of older adults; Medicaid coverage of long term care and Medicare basics; long term care insurance; nursing home law; planning for the small estate; and civil and criminal remedies for elder abuse and neglect. Students who take this course will not be eligible for the Elder Law Clinic in the fall of 2013.

431 - Law and Aging: Practicum (1 hour)
By permission of the instructor, a limited number of students may enroll for a 1-hour practicum to work with clients on issues related to the course, such as guardianship matters and benefits issues.

567 - Law and Economics (2 hours)
The course will consider the application of economic theory to a number of central issues dealt with by the legal system such as property rights, contract formation and enforceability, contract damages and product liability.

524 - Law and Medicine (2 hours)
An exploration of several legal aspects of the practice of medicine including medical malpractice, informed consent, hospital liability, and the right to die.

655 - Law and Terrorism (2 hours)*
This seminar examines the complex array of legal and policy issues generated by the phenomenon of terrorism, with an emphasis on post-9/11 developments. Topics likely to be addressed include: the scope of federal criminal laws relating to terrorism (and constitutional concerns raised by some such laws); the nature of the FBI’s investigative authorities (and constitutional concerns that they raise); the regulation of intelligence-gathering and other activities conducted by other government agencies; the use of military force in connection with counterterrorism policy (including the full array of constitutional, international, and statutory issues raised by Guantanamo, military detentions, targeted killings, and war crime trials); and issues associated with interrogation.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

589 - Law and Valuation (2 hours)
This course considers the interplay of the law and modern valuation techniques. We look at modern valuation theory and methods, and their application in particular legal valuation contexts such as bankruptcy, equitable distribution, medical malpractice litigation, government takings and corporate buyouts. Students will present a group project and write a short paper on a topic of their choice. Offered on a periodic basis.

609 - Law Practice Management (2 hours)*
A practical study of the work of the lawyer in the practice, the management of a modern law office, the attorney-client relationship, and the drafting of legal instruments.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

595 - Law Review (2 hours)
The Wake Forest Law Review is a student-run organization that publishes four issues annually, hosts a lecture series, and sponsors a daylong symposium focused on a specific, dedicated Law Review topic. Membership is determined through academic performance and/or participation in a writing competition. Students may repeat this course once, for a maximum of four hours credit.

411 - Law, Business, and the American Economy (2 hours)
This course examines the mortgage foreclosure crisis and other recent phenomena that highlight the interplay of financing, law, and the American Economy. Limited enrollment encourages active class participation in an ever-changing field.

519 - Law, Literature, and Culture (3 hours)*
The course asks students to reflect on justice by examining ethical and moral issues faced by lawyers in literature and film. Study of classic works in law and literature curriculum as well as of less often studied works and several films will give students new tools of analysis and moral perspective. These tools will be brought to bear on the study of some legal opinions that will be read as narratives in a specific context.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

121 - Legal Analysis, Writing and Research for International Lawyers (2 hours)
A two-hour, fall-semester course is designed to teach LL.M. students how to research a legal problem; to analyze an appellate opinion; to synthesize a series of appellate opinions; to interpret a statute; and to write an objective memorandum of law. The research portion of the course is designed to develop competencies in research methods needed to locate and synthesize relevant legal authority effectively and efficiently and reviews a wide array of sources for legal authority, both print and electronic. (Restricted to LL.M. students)

110 - Legal Analysis, Writing and Research I (2 hours)
Seminar instruction in the lawyering skills of case analysis, statutory interpretation, persuasive argument, and legal research through the preparation of legal memoranda and briefs.

119 - Legal Analysis, Writing and Research II (2 hours)
Seminar instruction in the lawyering skills of case analysis, statutory interpretation, persuasive argument, and legal research through the preparation of legal memoranda and briefs.

535 - Legal History- American (3 hours)*
A study of how the law has reflected and shaped American culture. The course includes English origins of ideas of individual rights and limited government, controversies that shaped the American Revolution, the development of torts in the 19th century, and how the controversy over slavery shaped the Fourteenth Amendment.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

700 - Legal History- English (3 hours)
A study of selected topics and areas of English legal history including the early court system, common law actions, and extraordinary remedies. Offered in London during the summer.

421 - Legal History: Selected Topics (3 hours)
The course will cover the Supreme Court of the United States from the Depression through the Warren Court. This period witnesses Franklin Roosevelt’s battle with a Court that reflected the Lochner philosophy, through the President’s success in changing the membership of the court, the Civil Rights revolution--including protests that challenged the racial caste system and Lyndon Johnson's successful effort to obtain the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act 1965.

427 - Legal Writing for Judicial Chambers LAWR (2 hours)
This course focuses on the various tasks associated with being a judicial clerk in federal or state court. Students will move between the roles of clerk and judge as they work their way through an actual case, from the trial court to the appellate court. Major graded components will include writing a bench memo; drafting a trial court opinion; making a panel presentation and participating in a panel conference; and writing a majority and dissenting opinion. The course is a 2-hour seminar designed to satisfy LAWR III.

200 - Legislation and Administrative Law (3 hours)
This course surveys the legislative process, fundamentals of statutory interpretation, and the work of administrative agencies, with special emphasis on the administrative rule-making process.

616 - Legislation and Administrative Law Research (1 hour)
This course will provide instruction in advanced search strategies and techniques for legislative and administrative/regulatory research at both the federal and state level. Topics will include cost-effective legal research strategies, legislative tracking and history, updating statutes, regulatory tracking and history, researching administrative decisions, and making freedom of information requests. Successful completion of, or concurrent enrollment in, Legislation and Administrative Law (200), while not required, is strongly recommended.

603 - Litigation Clinic (5 hours)
A vigorous concurrent program of academic instruction and skills training designed to more fully qualify the student to practice law. Every student participates in both the civil and criminal law elements. Direct field instruction in the civil and criminal practice is provided by practicing attorneys. The classroom component teaches the lawyering skills of communication, interviewing, counseling, discovery, negotiation, and advocacy. All practice is in accord with North Carolina's Student Practice Rule. Prerequisites: Civil Procedure and Evidence. Pre- or co-requisite: Trial Practice. Professional Responsibility and Criminal Procedure are suggested but not required.

553 - Litigation Drafting LAWR (2 hours)
Legal drafting in the litigation setting. Students will be required to draft and evaluate typical litigation documents. This course satisfies the Legal Analysis, Writing, and Research III Requirement. Students can take both Litigation Drafting and 570 Pre-trial Practice and Procedure.

521 - Mass Media Law (2 hours)
The subject matter includes a variety of communications industries - print media, film, broadcasting, and the Internet - and a variety of legal topics - copyright infringement, defamation, censorship, and privacy. The course focuses on the impact of new technologies on the topic.

645 - Mediation (3 hours)*
This course will address the theory, law, and practice of mediation as a dispute resolution technique. Students passing this course will earn A Certificate of Completion verifying that they have successfully completed 40-hours of superior Court Mediation Training. The North Carolina Dispute Resolution Commission has approved this course as satisfying Rule 8A of the Revised Rules Implementing Statewide Mediated Settlement Conferences relating to one of the requirements of Mediator certification. Students who have taken Dispute Resolution in the past or who are enrolled in or who plan to take the Dispute Resolution course may not register for Mediation.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

639 - Metropolitan Externship (13 hours)
Students enrolled in this course will receive 10 credits on a pass-fail basis and 3 credits of graded credit. They will participate in externships based in Washington, D.C. and will meet weekly with the Director to integrate and apply the doctrinal insights received elsewhere in the law school curriculum with the real problems, real cases, and real clients encountered in the externship. Open only to third-year students. Students enrolled in this course must complete all other graduation requirements, apart from the total credit hours requirement, before the starting date of the externship. Enrollment occurs through a specialized application process. This course fulfills the Practical Skills requirement.

549 - Moot Court Competition (1 hour)
Seminar in advanced appellate advocacy involving research and drafting of briefs and presentation of oral arguments as a member of an interscholastic moot court team. Students may repeat this course for a maximum of two hours credit.

547 - Moot Court Problem Book (1 hour)
The Moot Court Board is a student-run organization that oversees moot court competitions and the preparation and publication of an annual Problem Book. Students selected by the Moot Court Board to prepare and edit the Problem Book receive one academic credit on certification of their work by a faculty member.

629 - Motor Carrier Law (1 hour)
Motor Carrier Law is a one-credit practical skills course that will focus on practical business and legal issues facing trucking companies. The class will be limited in size to 12 students and will focus on client counseling and representation skills. The class will use a hypothetical fact pattern throughout the course and will place the student in the alternating role of either the attorney or the client. The subject matter will cover various practical topics affecting the legal representation of trucking companies, and specifically the business issues that will allow the student to become a successful advocate and advisor for any small-business client. The course will be graded according to the level of the students’ participation and knowledge of the course topics, as demonstrated through written and oral interactions with the instructor and other students.

705 - MSL - Business Law (3 hours)
Introduction to legal systems governing business relationships and transactions, including the nature of business entities, business formation, business mergers and acquisitions, commercial transactions, bankruptcy, and intellectual property. Specific attention to taxation of business, security interets, IP transfers, business crimes and torts, and international business transactions.

704 - MSL - Dispute Resolution (2 hours)
Introduction to procedures for resolution of private disputes, including private litigation process, class actions, and non-judicial methods of dispute resolution. Specific atttention to discovery of information, judicial resolution without trial, appellate practice, mediation and arbitration. Comparison to dispute resolution in non-US contexts.

753 - MSL - Independent Expansive Study (3 hours)
Research and writing in selected legal fields under faculty supervision. (No MSL student may earn more than a total of three Independent Study credits in all.)

752 - MSL - Independent Intensive Study (2 hours)
Research and writing in selected legal fields under faculty supervision. (No MSL student may earn more than a total of three Independent Study credits in all.)

751 - MSL - Independent Study (1 hour)
Research and writing in selected legal fields under faculty supervision. (No MSL student may earn more than three Independent Study credits in all.)

701 - MSL - Legal Methods (3 hours)
Introduction to legal system in the United States, including judicial system, federal-state division, law-making process, common law decision-making, legal research, and legal profession. Specific attention to legal writing assignments in various contexts, including case analysis, statutory analysis, policy paper, and contract drafting. Comparison to legal systems in other countries.

711 - MSL - Negotiation (2 hours)
Introduction to skills and theory of negotiation, with practical applications.

703 - MSL - Private Law (3 hours)
Introduction to legal systems relating to relationships among individuals and private entities, including responsibilities and liabilities in society, contractual relationships, and rights to property. Speciic attention to economic theory, employment relationship, systems of compensation, contract review, real estate transactions, rules of succession, and private law in non-US legal systems

702 - MSL - Public Law (4 hours)
Introduction to legal systems relating to relationship between state and individual, including structure of government and the US consitituion, administrative rules and interpretation, and criminal justice system. Specific attention to philosophy of law, protection of civil rights, free speech rights, environmental law, immigration law, criminal procedures and criminal sentencing.

741 - MSL - Thesis (2 hours)
Dedicated writing experience under supervision of faculty advisor, either as (1) independent thesis paper (no oral defense required) or (2) significant paper in conjunction with seminar paper course that in quantity and quality satisfies both course requirement and two-hour thesis requirement.

566 - National Security Law (2 hours)
A study of separation of powers; the legislative process; military jurisdiction; and civil court review of military actions.

581 - Native American Law (2 hours)*
This course deals with legal protections for tribal sovereignty, the enforcement of the trust responsibility, the protection of land and natural resources, federal recognition, gaming and financing of tribal projects. This field of law supports a vibrant legal practice for attorneys in a complex regulatory environment.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

530 - Natural Resources (2 hours)
A study of the ownership, development, and use of natural resources as oil, gas, coal, water, and timber and an exploration of the tension between development and conservation. Coverage may include the management of resources on federal public lands, including hardrock mining, the leasing system for energy fuels, and protection of recreational and wilderness values. Offered on a periodic basis.

412 - NCAA Rules Compliance and Enforcement (2 hours)
This course offers students a comprehensive overview of current NCAA rules, policies, enforcement procedures, and the manner in which they are applied at the Division I intercollegiate level. Students study NCAA rules and policies and NCAA infractions and judicial decisions that interpret these rules. Students also examine materials that offer differing perspectives on the NCAA regulatory system. Student performance is assessed on the basis of written memos and in-class presentations that evaluate case studies. Students are given a short final exam. The course is co-taught by Professor Timothy Davis and Dr. Todd Hairston, Wake Forest University's Associate Athletic Director for Compliance.

600 - Negotiation (2 hours)
Students will learn about and practice negotiation skills.

582 - Non-Profit Organization Law (2 hours)
This course deals with the legal aspects of non-profit organizations ranging from small unincorporated fraternal and political groups to large charitable organizations, churches, museums, libraries, and hospitals.

545 - Patent Law (2 hours)
A study of the policy and constitutional underpinnings of the U.S. Patent System including consideration of economic justifications; exploration of basic requirements of patentability including patentable subject matter, novelty and non-obviousness; overview of U.S. Patent Office procedures; exploration of patent infringement standards and procedures including claim construction, determination of liability, defenses and remedies; consideration of the role of patents in business transaction and licensing.

518 - Payments Law and Commercial Paper (3 hours)
A study of Article 3 of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC), which applies to negotiable instruments and related topics.

621 - Planning and Drafting of Wills and Trusts (2 hours)
This course, previously offered as Estate Planning, includes an introduction to the federal estate and gift tax system. Students learn how to draft a simple will, a will with a trust for a disabled spouse or for minor children, a revocable trust to avoid probate, a life insurance trust to provide liquidity to an otherwise illiquid estate, and a special needs or supplemental needs trust to provide for a relative who is receiving benefits from Medicaid. Pre- or Co-requisite: Decedents' Estates & Trusts.

404 - Pornography and the Law (2 hours)
This course will use the phenomenon of pornography as a vehicle to explore the social and legal status of women, and how that status intersects with commitments to equality and free speech. Both anti-pornography and pro-pornography feminist perspectives will be explored. Students will be asked to analyze conceptualizations of pornography as speech, protected by a constitutional commitment to free speech, but also conceptualizations of pornography as discrimination. How are the two competing views reconciled (if they can be)? The class readings and discussion will combine Feminist Theory, Sociology and Law. The course will contrast legal approaches to pornography in the United States with approaches under similar constitutional schemes (such as those in Canada and Sweden) and under international human rights instruments.

507 - Poverty Law (2 hours)
This course will broadly study American poverty, poverty programs and constitutional, federal, state and municipal laws that directly affect the poor. Students will survey wealth disparities in the U.S. through demographic data relating to income, educational attainment, housing, access to medical care and voting.

350 - Practicum Extension (1 hour)*
A resident faculty member of a doctrinal course may make the Practicum Extension available in conjunction with the course. If so, a student may receive 1 or 2 hours of graded or ungraded credit for an externship related to the subject matter of the course. The faculty member and a practicing lawyer or other professional supervise the student in a practical experience “extending” the course. The faculty member may limit the number of students eligible for the Practicum Extension in a given semester. The extension may be available for a course taken currently or in a past semester. A student may enroll in the Practicum Extension more than once if the underlying subject areas for the different Practicum Extensions are substantially different. The Executive Associate Dean for Academic Affairs determines, after consultation with the affected faculty members, whether a student’s subsequent Practicum Extension would cover material and skills that are different enough from the first experience to warrant additional academic credit. Faculty will require approximately 30-35 hours of placement work for each hour of graded practicum credit. The faculty member will also require the student to complete exercises, apart from the fieldwork and the activities connected to the related doctrinal course, to promote reflection about the practice placement. Also, the faculty member will work with the field supervisor on specific learning objectives for the student and the range of activities that the student will complete. Both the field supervisor and the academic supervisor monitor the student’s work and collaborate on the appropriate grade.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

570 - Pre-Trial Practice and Procedure (3 hours)
An exploration of the procedural requirements involved in getting a civil case to trial. Frequent drafting assignments involving pleadings, discovery, and pre-trial motions required. Students can take both Pre-Trial Practice and Procedure and 553 Litigation Drafting.

523 - Products Liability (3 hours)*
An in-depth study of the law of products liability, with emphasis on problems of proof and other litigation problems.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

305 - Professional Responsibility (2 hours)
Consideration of major issues lawyers must deal with in the field of professional responsibility, conflicts of interest, preservation of confidences, acceptable tactics in an adversary system, and other selected topics.

111 - Property (4 hours)
Introduction to basic concepts and principles of Anglo-American law as they relate to personal and real property.

675 - Prosecution Externship (2 hours)
The course is a 2-credit placement in a prosecutor's office. The faculty member consults with the supervising attorneys in the office to establish customized learning objectives for each students, achieved through a variety of practice experiences. The number of hours that a student spends at work in the prosecutor's office will be consistent with the hours required for clinical courses. The student will also complete written exercises to promote reflection on the fieldwork. Prosecution Seminar is a prerequisite; permission of the instructor is required.

426 - Prosecution Seminar (2 hours)
This seminar, taught by a full-time faculty member in concert with practicing prosecutors, will explore the environment, objectives, and challenges of the American prosecutor's office. Reading and discussion topics will create a dialogue between theory and practice. Students will be evaluated on the basis of a series of practice-relevant simulations and drafting exercises. Enrollment is limited.

341 - Public Interest Externship (2 hours)
The course is a 2-credit placement in a public interest organization in Washington, D.C. Students will complete a significant research assignment from a public interest organization in Washington, D.C. under the supervision of the professor of the course. Students will travel to Washington to meet with the organization to receive the research assignment and again at the completion of the project to present the results to the organization. (If necessary, these meetings can be online.) Enrollment is limited. The Public Interest Lawyering Seminar is a co-requisite.

441 - Public Interest Lawyering Seminar (1 hour)
This seminar will explore the environment, objectives, and challenges of the public interest lawyering. Reading and discussion topics will create a dialogue between theory and practice. Students will be evaluated on the basis of a series of short papers and drafting exercises. Enrollment is limited and students taking the public interest externship will have priority in enrollment.

578 - Race and the Law (2 hours)
This seminar will examine the relationship between race and law in America. It will explore the role that the law has played throughout American history in areas such as slavery, the administration of justice, public accommodations, voting rights, the Civil Rights movement, and interracial marriage. Prerequisites: Constitutional Law I.

539 - Real Estate Development and Finance (2 hours)
A study of financing complex real estate transactions, including major residential developments (subdivisions, planned unit developments, and condominiums), shopping centers, and other commercial and industrial projects.

632 - Real Estate Transactions Seminar (3 hours)
This course will survey the legal and business issues relating to the acquisition, development, leasing, and disposition of commercial real estate, with a focus on the issues arising in the development and ownership of large commercial developments such as shopping centers and office buildings. About half the semester will be spent on commercial real estate purchase agreements and the other half on a commercial lease. The course includes a skills component and students will participate in negotiating and drafting a real estate contract (purchase agreement or lease) for a hypothetical client. Property 111 is a prerequisite.

208 - Real Property Security (2 hours)
The law of real estate financing primarily as applied to residential real estate transactions. Prerequisite: Property

653 - Real World Corporate Lawyering (1 hour)
This course will consider the real world challenges and pitfalls for a lawyer for the corporation. The topics to be covered include fiduciary duties of corporate directors and officers, the special ethical role of the lawyer for the corporation, the lawyer-client privilege and work product rules in the corporate setting, and the lawyer’s role in avoiding implications of client fraud. Business Organizations is a prerequisite; and Professional Responsibility is a pre- or co-requisite. Offered on a periodic basis.

641 - Regulatory Law and Policy (3 hours)
This course examines legal, political, and policy aspects of government regulation with an emphasis on the public policy arguments that lawyers use when they appear before legislatures and regulatory agencies. Offered on a periodic basis.

644 - Risk Regulation Law and Policy (2 hours)
This seminar addresses the law, science, economics, and social policies involved in efforts to assess and abate risks and harm to people and the environment. After study and discussion of different aspects of risk regulation, students will write papers on topics relating to risk reduction issues of their choosing.

666 - Risk, Public Policy and Law (3 hours)
This seminar focuses on how concepts of risk serve to justify and shape public policies, legal rules, and risk management practices. It introduces some of the primary methods for analyzing potentially risky policies and managing risk. The course analyzes the differences between formal assessments of risk and the "perceived risks" and social, political and institutional responses that drive public policy. Students apply these concepts to specific cases in current public policies that involve the intersection of environmental, energy, natural disaster, and security concerns.

442 - Sales and Secured Transactions (UCC arts. 2 & 9 integrated) (3 hours)
This sales financing course covers the essentials of both articles 2 and 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code, articles covered separately in the two courses, 517 Sales (article 2, 3 hours) and 516 Secured Transactions (article 9, 3 hours). Students who take the combined course, 442 Sales and Secured Transactions, may not receive credit for either of the other courses. Likewise, students who have taken either of the separate courses may not receive credit for the combined course. Both articles, 2 and 9, are included as topics on the multistate bar examination.

517 - Sales, Leases, Transactions and International Sales (3 hours)
A study of Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) and related topics.

852 - Scholarly Writing for International Lawyers (2 hours)
This course supplements the thesis or other academic writing requirement necessary to obtain the LLM in American Law Degree. The course reinforces graduate student production by refining discourse and promoting pragmatic (not just grammatical) competence in a scholarly context that includes conferences, academic presentations and critical research papers with a view toward publication at home and abroad. This course is required for students electing the thesis track and is optional for students pursuing the alternative writing requirement. (Restricted to LL.M. students)

416 - Scientific Evidence in Criminal Cases (2 hours)*
The purpose of the course is to introduce students to the spectrum of scientific proof most commonly encountered in criminal cases and their standards of admissibility. The course seeks to educate students regarding the increasingly important intersection of law, science, social science and technology. The course will cover a range of expert and non-expert "skilled" testimony varying widely from a multidisciplinary perspective, including testimony relating to the physical, biological, and behavioral sciences. The overall objective of the course is to ensure that students will gain understanding and proficiency in the use of modern scientific evidence in a rapidly changing area of the criminal justice system. Evidence #207 is a pre- or co-requisite.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

516 - Secured Transactions (3 hours)
A study of Articles 9 and 6 of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC),, which apply to transactions in which a debtor borrows money from a creditor and grants to the creditor a security interest in personal property of the debtor to secure the debtor's promise to repay the loan.

620 - Securities Regulation (3 hours)
An analysis of the federal regulation of the distribution and trading of securities, including an examination of the registration process, insider trading, and fraud in connection with the purchase and sale of securities. Prerequisite: Business Organizations.

413 - Selected Topics in Social Science (2 hours)*
The course explores implicit (automatic/unconscious) racial attitudes and the law, focusing on the role of social sciences reasearch in the law and how lawyers should use this research.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

651 - Sexual Identity and the Law (2 hours)
This course explores a wide variety of issues related to sexual identity and sexual orientation. With the law as the starting point, the overarching questions that define the place of the gay individual in American society will be examined. We will consider, among other topics, the regulation of sexuality, sexual orientation, gender roles, the workplace, the intersection of law and religion, same-sex relationships, and gay parenting. Much of the legal doctrine considered in this course will be constitutional in nature, including studies of the right to privacy, the First Amendment, and equal protection.

638 - Social Science, Race, and the Law (2 hours)
Survey of research from across the social sciences and psychology regarding the way prejudice functions in the brain, and potential responses of legal doctrine and institutions to these scientific insights. Topics will be chosen from the following: jury selection and performance, perceived credibility of expert witnesses, cross-racial eyewitness testimony, police profiling, capital-sentencing outcomes, judicial decision-making, and parental rights termination.

573 - Sports Law (2 hours)
This course deals with issues that arise in the representation of individuals and organizations involved in sports.

510 - State and Local Government (2 hours)
A study of the nature and organization of municipal corporations, state legislative control of local government units, municipal police power, tort and contractual liability, constitutional and statutory limitations on taxation, borrowing, and the expenditure of funds.

625 - Suing Government (2 hours)
This course deals with lawsuits against federal, state and local governments, with special emphasis on Section 1983 suits and immunity doctrines. Course readings will draw extensively on actual case files and documents. This course fulfills the Practical Skills requirement.

890 - Supervised Dissertation (6 hours)
S.J.D. candidates must enroll in this course every semester, whether in residence or not. Under the supervision of their faculty dissertation advisor, S.J.D. candidates conduct independent research and writing relating to the candidate’s S.J.D. dissertation. The S.J.D. candidate is required to complete a dissertation of publishable quality that constitutes an original and substantial scholarly contribution to the area of law in which it is written.

443 - Sustainable Corporations (2 hours)
This course considers the sustainability of the modern US corporation – that is, whether the corporation is capable of meeting current social needs while enabling future generations to meet their needs. The course looks at the corporation’s current design: its externalization of social costs, the short-termism of corporate decision making, and the “group think” culture of corporate leadership. It then considers some current responses to these non-sustainable attributes: environmental liabilities, the voluntary CSR movement, and institutional shareholder activism. The course concludes by considering paradigm shifts: revamped disclosure, new business forms, and reconceptualizations of corporate leadership. Students prepare a paper, presented in class at the end of the term, on a “corporate sustainability” topic of their choice.

679 - Tax Strategies for Large Estates (1 hour)
This course covers the tax component of what was formerly included in Estate Planning. Because the tax exemption from federal estate tax is so high, this course focuses on the estate tax and planning only for large estates. Prerequisite: Federal Income Tax; Corequisite: Planning and Drafting of Wills and Estates.

614 - Taxation Research (1 hour)
The course focuses on developing research strategies for finding and using a variety of tax materials in a changing information environment. Emphasis is on federal income tax research but also includes an overview of state and international materials.

557 - Taxation: Corporate Reorganizations (2 hours)
A study of tax-free corporate acquisitions and divisions, including transfer of loss carryovers and other tax attributes. Offered on a periodic basis. Prerequisite: Taxation: Corporations and Shareholders.

556 - Taxation: Corporations and Shareholders (2 hours)*
An examination of the income tax aspects of doing business in the corporate form. Major topics include corporate formation, liquidating and non-liquidating distributions, the taxable sale of an incorporated business, and Subchapter S. Prerequisite: Taxation: Federal Income Taxation.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

212 - Taxation: Federal Estate and Gift Taxation (3 hours)
A survey course intended to acquaint students with a system of taxation that impacts a wide spectrum of law practice beyond estate planning.

206 - Taxation: Federal Income Taxation (3 hours)*
A survey of the basic principles of federal income taxation, with emphasis on the Internal Revenue Code and its administrative and judicial interpretations.
* This course may be offered for 4 hours during some years.

635 - Taxation: Income of Trusts and Estates (2 hours)
A study of the principles of assignment income, income taxation of trusts and estates, and selected topics. Prerequisite: Taxation: Federal Income Taxation.

542 - Taxation: International Tax (3 hours)
A study of United States taxation of United States citizens and corporations earning income abroad and United States taxation of foreign corporations and citizens earning income in the United States. Prerequisite: Taxation: Federal Income Taxation.

658 - Taxation: Mergers and Acquisitions (1 hour)
The class will deal with the tax consequences to the acquiring corporation, the target corporation, and the shareholders. This course is only open to students who either have taken, or are concurrently taking Taxation of Corporations and Shareholders. No student is allowed to enroll in both this course and 557 Taxation of Corporate Reorganizations. Offered on a periodic basis.

544 - Taxation: Policy (2 hours)
A study of the social and economic consequences of current and proposed tax legislation. Prerequisite: Taxation: Federal Income Taxation.

630 - Taxation: Taxation of Partnerships (3 hours)
An analysis of income tax problems in the organization, operation, reorganization, and dissolution of partnerships. Prerequisite: Taxation: Federal Income Taxation.

672 - Technology and Law Practice (2 hours)
This course provides students with the opportunity to learn practical technology skills to apply in the workplace and empower them with a core technology knowledge base to be competitive in a changing legal marketplace. The course will focus on the development of best practices for use of technology in a variety of practice settings, from solo practice to large firm.

669 - The Business of Law and the Evolving Law Firm Environment (2 hours)
This course covers how law firms are structured; how they make money; how they recruit, compensate, and promote lawyers and staff; and how they develop and retain clients. The class explores the major issues in a series of group exercises.

108 - Torts (4 hours)
Introduction to the law of torts including a study of its historical development and legislatively created systems of compensation designed to supplant traditional actions at law.

665 - Toxic Torts (3 hours)
This course examines the theories of liability and issues of proof surrounding toxic torts as well as the remedial challenges. The course also explores the challenges of the traditional tort paradigm for injuries with long latency periods and the interplay of the common law regime and government regulation.

597 - Trade Secrets and Unfair Competition (2 hours)
This course will cover the field of trade secrets and covenants not to compete. It will not overlap substantially with Intellectual Property, Patent Law, Copyrights, or Trademarks.

587 - Trademarks (2 hours)
This course focuses on the basics of trademark law, including: how trademark rights are acquired at common law and under the Lanham Act; the distinctiveness spectrum and the problems of "genericness;" and how to protect product packaging and design as source identifiers. It also explores issues relating to traditional trademark infringement as well as dilution and anti-cybersquatting. Students taking this course will be required to complete a team project for their final grade.

610 - Trial Practice (3 hours)
A series of classes and simulations devoted to the study of trial techniques, followed by the preparation and trial of a moot case. Prerequisite: Evidence.

615 - Trial Practice (Competition) (1 hour)
Interscholastic trial competition for selected students. Students may repeat this course for a maximum of three hours credit.

800 - Upper-Level Writing Requirement (0 hours)
All students are required to do an extensive piece of supervised legal writing during their 2nd and 3rd year. Students may select from a list of courses (primarily seminars) that can satisfy this requirement.

520 - Washington Judicial Externship (6 hours)
This course places students in the chambers of federal judges in Washington, D.C. for an 8-week clerkship with judges on the United States Court of Appeal for the Federal circuit, the United States Court of Federal Claims, or the Office of the Special Masters of the Court of Federal Claims. Students also meet weekly for classwork. For the field experience, students earn 3 hours of pass/fail credit; for the classroom component, 3 hours of graded credit. Students apply for the program in early Spring.

555 - Workers' Compensation (2 hours)
A study of the substantive and procedural elements of state mandated compensation systems for injured workers with an emphasis on the employer/employee relation, compensable injuries and occupational diseases, and the exclusivity of the remedy; additionally, these systems will be compared with and contrasted to other public compensation systems and private sources of injury relief.

429 - Wrongful Convictions (3 hours)*
Wrongful Convictions may be offered as a 2 hour or 3 hour course. As a two hour course, it studies the major issues of wrongful convictions: false confessions, mistaken eyewitness identification, invalid forensic science, informant testimony, ineffective assistance of counsel, police and prosecutorial misconduct, and racial and ethnic bias. The course is case-based, designed to give students an understanding of the case law and of the legal tools for litigating the cases, should the students decide to continue working with the Innocence and Justice Clinic. Students considering careers in criminal justice, whether as prosecutors or defense attorneys, are encouraged to take the class. As a 3 hour course, the course includes a field work component in reviewing requests for assistance to inmates alleging their wrongful convictions.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.